why suddenly the question marks?

Look at this page
http://eventsinindia.com/event/639

Everything looked fine sometime back. But now there are question
marks. I find such question marks on other pages too.

What's the root cause and what's the fix.

Thanks

The page claims to be UTF-8, but the \225 characters are invalid in a UTF-8 encoding. Could the page have been updated by someone pasting text from a different encoding? Perhaps iso-8859-1 or similar from Windows?

If you're on a browser that can force the encoding, set it to ISO Latin 1 and you'll see those are text bullets (which makes sense when you view the formatting of the page source. (For example, in Safari View->TextEncoding->Western(ISOLatin1) makes the page look OK.)

-Rob

Rob Biedenharn http://agileconsultingllc.com
Rob@AgileConsultingLLC.com

Hi Rob,

Thanks for the quick response and I would look into your answer in more detail.

I must confess that I don't get all this encoding issue. Is there a
resource ( paid or unpaid) which could discuss this UTF-8 encoding etc
in greatet detail. I guess an oreilly shortcut on something like this
would be useful to me.

Anyway I will continue to investigate this issue and will try to educate myself.

Thanks
- Raj

I must confess that I don't get all this encoding issue. Is there a
resource ( paid or unpaid) which could discuss this UTF-8 encoding etc
in greatet detail. I guess an oreilly shortcut on something like this
would be useful to me.

for starters... http://www.joelonsoftware.com/articles/Unicode.html

seemed a decent overview...

It's an encoding mismatch.

In Safari I see the question marks when the page first loads. After
changing the text-encoding to latin-1 manually in the browser
everything is fine.

So, the content seems to be latin-1 encoded. Your server is issuing a
Content-Type: text/html; charset=utf-8 header though. My first
thought would be to check the database encoding (collation) and the
db connection encoding (database.yml).