Is there an "before_commit" hook somewhere in Rails? after_save does not help (example code attached)

Hi, (no luck on the user forum so I’m hoping I can ask here)

I’m trying to get a simple cross-model business rule working. In this case the rule is (see below for models overview):

  • Rule = Sum(allocations amount, for a book) = Book Amount

ISSUE: The issue is in using after_create is that either the book or allocation is saved before the other. The only way I can see to make this work is to have a check just prior to COMMIT, where all records are visible within the DB and your final checks can be run (and rolled back if there is problem). Hence my question:

QUESTION: Is there an “before_commit” hook somewhere in Rails? (or how else would I satisfy my requirement)

PS. Some additional clarification:

  1. Goal is to understand whether I can/should attempt to model a business_rule that cuts across multiple models in Rails
  2. I think the given is that to carry out a user scenario (e.g. adding more chapters to a book) would result in having to carry out multiple steps at a per model level (e.g. adjust allocation of amount across chapter for their authors), and that during these model changes the Business Rule would have be violated, however by the time you’ve finished the Business Rule should have been adhered to.
  3. I was really hoping to have a way to do this that didn’t break the normal usage of Rails models, but at the same time if you did jump in and try to make one isolated change on one model (e.g. add a new chapter for a book without ensuring all the chapter costs were adjusted to equal the book cost), the Business Rule code would kick in and pull you up with an exception.
  4. The only way I can see to handle this in the KISS (keep it simple stupid) fashion would be to be able to get some sort of “before_commit” hook from Rails, where I ideally it would give you the models that have changed in this hook, so you do cross-business rule sanity check. So the check here would ultimately be database focused (i.e. check against what is in the database)
  5. I’ve thought about doing the check just at object level at “before_save” point, however there seem to be gotchas here.

Hope that makes sense. Perhaps this is just not-possible in Rails currently and I should just assume I have to be very careful with all my code, because there won’t be that cross-model validation check there to save me. One reason to have it in place too by the way is that I could leverage a front-end frame work like ActiveScaffold and not have to worry about the fact it would give a user the ability to change one particular row without that cross-model business logic check kicking in.

I think I'm a little confused about this. Can you explain again what
you are trying to do?

So the rule is that the sum of allocations for a book must equal a
total. That sounds like a validation. My code would look like

class Book
   validate :sum_of_allocation_equals_amount

def sum_of_allocation_equals_amount
  error.add(:amount,"Does not match sum of allocations") unless
allocations.sum_of_price == amount

Then, you can create a book

book =>20)

#and add allocations>10)>5)>5)

# and then save the book, which I believe will save the allocations

Does that not work?


The trouble I had with cross-model validation using validates was:

(a) Object Level (i.e. using Rails objects)

  • During the carrying out of a scenario (say increasing book value, and then re-deciding what each of the chapter value allocation to this should be) will imply during the process of making these changes the business rule will break, but it’s only at the end when you’re finished the business rule needs to be applied. For example the sequence might be:
    • change book value
    • change chapter 1 value
    • change chapter 2 value
    • change chapter 3 value
  • Hence any validation method getting called at any of the interim steps I don’t think will correctly apply the cross-model business rule
  • Also at Rails object level another gottcha is just because you assign book a chapter (without saving) doesn’t imply you can then see that chapter from the book instance end (or perhaps it was the other way around).

(b) At Database Level - If the validation code always looks database records to do the comparison then you also get business rule exceptions being through during the use case scenario whereas you really want to only apply it at the end.

So without going to a database solution of some sort (triggers etc) the only way I could think of getting this working at the Rails level was to get access to an overall “just_before_commit” hook, hence my question. (Someone suggested observers, so I’ll have to read up on these, however if they apply at the per model level then I don’t think this would probably work either)


PS Don’t read too much into my example as it is only there for the purpose of trying to highlight a simple cross-model business rule.

Personally, I normally solve the problem by making one source of data
the correct record. For instance, I would make the allocation the
source, and then put a callback on allocation that notifies Book of a
change. Then, Book can recalculate itself from the allocations. This
type of things is often very specific to the domain. If I was doing a
percentage breakdown, for instance, allocating a portion of the profit
to a number of people, I would have a single method the balances all
of the allocations and includes the validation logic instead of
allowing people to update a single allocation at a time. For instance,

class Book
   def set_allocations(allocations)
     raise InvalidAllocations unless valid_allocations?(allocations)

That keeps the logic in a single place and makes the validation a part
of the business rule that it is tied to.


Hi Mike, all

Understood. To help align my fictitious example to the cross-model validation question I’ve asked consider that:
(a) the book value is fixed [e.g. perhaps think of this as a bank account transaction amount, being allocated out to different tax categories & then the user wants to adjust the tax categories]
(b) the user manually adjusts the chapter value (i.e. there is no programmatic approach to calculating the distribution)

So this brings it back to my scenario I’m not sure how to solve in Rails whereby the sequence of events here would be:

  • change chapter 1 value
  • change chapter 2 value
  • change chapter 3 value
  • <only at this point should the cross model business rule be checked, i.e. Book.amount.should == Sum(chapter values)>

My assumption here (correct me if I’m wrong) is that any Rails validation/after_save/observer kicks in at such of the sequence points, whereas what is actually required here is a cross_model business logic check at the end.

Does this make sense? Is there a ways in Rails to get access to a “before_commit” type hook that would align with the point I want the business logic check to kick in?


There's no explicit hook, but you can pretty much do what you've described using transactions.
If you're updating the chapters in a single controller action, you can use a transaction block
(see to wrap all
the changes. Then, either use an after_save on Book, or just call a method directly to validate the

You'll want to use save! and friends within the block, and catch exceptions (ActiveRecord::RecordInvalid and
ActiveRecord::RecordNotSaved) to display errors.

--Matt Jones

Hi Matt/all,

Actually from what I can see Rails does not hold off on trigger it’s “after_save” callbacks until just before commit in the case they are wrapped in a specific transaction (unfortunately). So there’s still no “before_commit” equivalent yet anyone has identified. Let me know if I’m wrong however here’s the test I’ve run.

------------------- test output -------------------------------------------------

Macintosh-2:after_create_test greg$ spec spec/model/with_transaction_block.rb

BOOK: before_save


RuntimeError in ‘Book should allow creation of book-allocation-chapter if costs match’

amounts do NOT match

./spec/model/with_transaction_block.rb:27:in `after_save_check’



Finished in 0.048817 seconds

1 example, 1 failure

Macintosh-2:after_create_test greg$

--------------- spec ------------------------------------------------------------------

require File.expand_path(File.dirname(FILE) + ‘/…/spec_helper’)

------------ ALLOCATION -------------

class Allocation < ActiveRecord::Base

belongs_to :book

belongs_to :chapter

before_save :after_save_check

def after_save_check

puts "ALLOCATION: before_save"

b =

sum = b.allocations.sum(:amount)

raise("amounts do NOT match") if !(b.amount == sum)



----------- BOOK ---------------

class Book < ActiveRecord::Base

has_many :allocations

has_many :chapters, :through => :allocations

before_save :after_save_check

def after_save_check

puts "BOOK: before_save"

sum = self.allocations.sum(:amount)

raise "amounts do NOT match" if !(self.amount == sum)



----------- CHAPTER ---------------

class Chapter < ActiveRecord::Base

has_many :allocations

has_many :books, :through => :allocations

before_save :after_save_check

def after_save_check

puts "CHAPTER: before_save"



--------- RSPEC (BOOK) ------------

describe Book do

before(:each) do

@b = => 100)

@c =


it “should allow creation of book-allocation-chapter if costs match” do


  @a1 = Allocation.create!(:book_id => @[](, :chapter_id => @[](, :amount => 100)




-------mysql log -----------------------------------------------------------------

090125 15:31:46 1534 Connect root@localhost on after_create_test_test


1534 Statistics

1534 Query SHOW FIELDS FROM books

1534 Query SHOW FIELDS FROM chapters

1534 Query BEGIN

1534 Query SHOW FIELDS FROM allocations

1534 Query SELECT sum(allocations.amount) AS sum_amount FROM allocations WHERE (allocations.book_id = NULL)

1534 Query ROLLBACK

1534 Quit

Is my analysis correct?



hmmm, i have an idea for you but i think it’s a bit hacky… i’ve put the check on validation since i think it mostly relates to validating your models…

----------- Allocation ---------------

class Allocation < ActiveRecord::Base

belongs_to :book

belongs_to :chapter

validate :check

def check

#this will always be true… this just ensures that

return @check if @check

 @check = true



----------- BOOK ---------------

class Book < ActiveRecord::Base

has_many :allocations

has_many :chapters, :through => :allocations

validates_associated :allocations

validate :check

def check

puts “BOOK: after_save”

#reload associated allocations always

sum = self.allocations(true).map(&:amount).sum

errors.add("amount","do NOT match") unless self.amount == sum



this is a bit tricky, since Allocation#save will try to call on Book#valid?, the validates_associated will in turn try to call Allocation#valid? once again, but the second time the code executes on Allocation#check, the validation will just return true… hth


thanks stephen - I think (haven’t tested it) the problem here would still be called a line 1 (see below) of my use case. So whilst it would trigger validation for chapter in a non-looping sense, the problem is that until Chapter & the Allocation are saved to DB the validation will fail. Make sense? Hence why I was interested in an a “before_final_commit” type hook.

BTW - I’ve had an indication after posting on a mysql forum site that MySql does not provide a “deferred constraints” feature, whilst apparently Oracle and Postgres do. From what I gather this would have been useful as I could have put the business logic check in the database I think, to be only run after all statements had occurred, but before the final commit. Implication is that MySql won’t provide the solution so it would have to be in Rails if at all.

At this stage I’d be happy to assume I can not get a fully robust solution to cross-model validation checks in Rails. What at least would be good is to be able to get to the concept that:

  1. Data Access Layer - That is model classes and base ActiveRecord methods for models: These do not provide any protection themselves. If a developer uses the normal ActiveRecord calls (e.g. save, update etc) then it’s up to them to get it right, however they would be encouraged not to use this layer directly but use the “Service Layer”
  2. Service Layer - Provides methods to use the models/tables that have cross-model business rules. Basically these are the “trusted” methods that will respect the business rules (noting it’s not possible it seems to have Rails provide the robust solution). For example:
  • update_chapters - would update all chapters first (no model validation calls would be firing), then at the end perform the business logic check
  • Controller Layer - calls the service layer

Implication here is that one may not be able to use the normal tools like ActiveScaffold which automatically gives you maintenance pages for all the models, as it would be hooking into the Data Access Layer directly and therefore wouldn’t adhere to Business Logic check…

How does this sound? Probably the best I can do?


In your previous examples, the validation was getting called twice because you *defined* it twice;
once in Allocation and once in Book. The preferred idiom in Rails is to define it once, and be careful
how you use the objects. Since your rule won't allow Allocations or Books to be updated independently,
it seems logical that there will be (roughly) one place in the code that does the update.

AR doesn't automatically save associated records, but it's easy enough to do it yourself.

Your models would end up looking like this:

# ------------ ALLOCATION -------------
class Allocation < ActiveRecord::Base
   belongs_to :book
   belongs_to :chapter
   # note no validation here

# ----------- BOOK ---------------
class Book < ActiveRecord::Base
   has_many :allocations
   has_many :chapters, :through => :allocations

   before_save :check_totals
   def check_totals
     sum = self.allocations.sum(:amount)
     if !(self.amount == sum)
       self.errors.add :amount, 'amounts do not match'

# ----------- CHAPTER ---------------
class Chapter < ActiveRecord::Base
   has_many :allocations
   has_many :books, :through => :allocations

With a controller action like this:

def update_stuff
   @book = ... # get book instance
   # do stuff to @book.allocations - don't use update_attributes, as it will save the allocations
     # success
     # something went wrong

The false return value from check_totals will rollback the whole implicit transaction that is enclosed in
if the totals don't match up.

I'm not sure what the concern about ActiveScaffold is about - I haven't looked at it in a lot of depth, but I doubt that
it supports the kind of multi-model form you'll need to update the records the way you plan to. As it stands, it wouldn't
be possible to update either a Book or an Allocation independently.

The concept of "trusted" access methods is somewhat useless; if you don't trust the code in your controllers, you have
a whole other problem. Even if ironclad validations could be set up, all it takes is a call to save(false) to get past them...


That’s why I was so confused. There’s no reason to expect! to hold off validations. That’s the whole point calling save. If you want, you can build out the objects a la and then the save will also save the new allocations. So you may be able to do something like:

@b =
@c =!
@a = # which will save the allocations too

could also simplify things by creating a workflow where the user could
not change both models in one action. If you’re trying to be railsful
and restful, changing the book value in one action, and then
subsequently changing the chapter values in successive actions may be
the way to go.


If I understand the problem correctly, you want to update each of the
Allocations for a Book in one request, making sure that by the end of
the request the value sums are still valid. Correct? Based on that
assumption, I'm guessing that you're trying to do something like this
(in, I'm also guessing, your BooksController):

def update
  # explicitly open a transaction
    # (maybe) update values for specified Book
    # save Book
    # for each Attribute
      # update values
      # save
    # check Attribute sum validations and rollback transaction if
validation fails, commit otherwise
  # end transaction

The problem with this is that you're doing a lot of unnecessary
database work in the case where validation fails. And Rails doesn't
really support this approach easily. However, you have all the
information you need in order to do validation before any database
saves. You can build your HTML form to generate params such that the
modifications to Allocations get passed to the Book object on
update_attributes. The Book model then updates its Allocations,
checks the sum validation, and then (in an after_save callback) saves
all of its associated Allocations. If validation fails, you get a run-
of-the-mill Rails validation error response without touching the

On a related note, this validation strikes me as something that you
might want to consider doing on the client side, since you have all
the necessary information available there, and it could end up being
much simpler there.

Matt/Ryan/Adam - thanks.

I think I’d need to ponder further your suggestions and do some tests to let things sink in. In the meantime to answer some of your questions:

My Goal - Clarify whether Rails could be used (via validation/before_save/after_save type hooks) to provide a solid protection for a cross-model business rule. That is to protect the developer for making a mistake and for example accidentally making changes (in his/her code) that could lead to business rule violation (i.e. assuming they didn’t change the validation/before_create/after_create checks themselves).

I think in summary what I’m hearing is:

(a) It’s not really possible, however

(b) It is possible to achieve protection for the business rule if the developer follows an appropriate approach to making updates/changes, i.e. such that an appropriate validation would kick in if necessary.

Am I correct here?