Please disregard, solved. The answer was to move my constants higher in environment.rb (before require File.expand_path(‘…/application’, FILE)).
Apparently with this line in environment.rb, Rails loads all models when it hits this line, thus if there are constants referenced in the models which appear below in environment.rb, an error is thrown. Solution is to move constants before this line. require File.expand_path(‘…/application’, FILE)